concerning statistics about fires in dwellings and citizen households
The study refers to fires produced in rural and urban homes, in 2003-2009. Given the many changes in the structure of the statistical program P60, for a unified approach the year 2003, and not the year 2000, was taken as a starting point. This study was conducted in order to analyze the level of compliance by the citizens for fire prevention measures in homes, based on statistical data such as: the destination of the fire, the circumstances in which it occurred at peak hours.
The study results and findings can be used in the following: legislative initiatives regarding fire protection, the deployment of preventative inspections that are joined with the volunteering public services for emergency situation, the deployment of preparatory activities for the precautionary component from the volunteering public services for emergency cases, the planning and setting up precautionary informing activities for the citizens.
The source of the used data:
- Romanian Statistical Yearbook, 2008, the National Statistics Institute;
- Statistical database on fires in homes from I.S.U. Giurgiu
According to statistical records, in Giurgiu county there are 110 .386 dwellings, of which 31.766 in country areas (28.78) and 78.620 in rural area (71.22%).
We can distinguish a diversity of types of homes built in the Giurgiu county, mostly depending on the geographical area. We also can distinguish a great share of construction materials such as: adobe, wood and panel stakes.
The fire hazard
The fire hazard is given by the specific activities that happen in a home, which is amplified by certain circumstances.
In rural areas there are present the following alarming situations generated by:
- dwellings tend to crowd up because more people are opting for the reduction, in dimensions, within the build-up areas that pertain with the household
- Building housed without first obtaining the necessary authorization and therefore without compliance with the minimum fire safety measures;
- the construction of household annexes without complying with safety distances required, and building close other neighbourhoods
- the use of flammable construction materials without them being correctly protected from heat sources;
- stocking up feed in unfit and inadequate places from the point of view of preventing fires (e.g. in the close vicinity of the construction, in attics, etc.)
- over usage of makeshift electrical equipment
- using open flames in enclosed spaces
- over usage of faulty, makeshift heating means that are placed inadequately close to flammable materials
- leaving children unsupervised
- the existence of large quantities of flammable materials (especially during the autumn-winter period) used for home heating and cooking;
- failing to clean chimneys, thing which leads to formation of pyrophoric charcoal on the inner walls;
- burning plant residues and waste resulted from household activities.
In urban areas, we mostly see the following hazards:
- the overuse of electrical equipment that have defects or that are crude
- using a large number of electric appliances;
- utilizing a faulty or cracked gas supply systems
- leaving children unsupervised
The dangers listed above are aggravated by the following factors that have a tendcy of increasing their manifestation in recent years:
- few preventative actions and education for citizens;
- a high number of illiterates;
- low standard of living;
- arson done in order to avenge oneself to collect the insurance money;
- alcoholism accompanied or not by smoking;
- smoking in conditions of acute exhaustion generated by a society based on competition;
Causes / circumstances
Statistics from the Inspectorate for Emergency Situations "VLASCA" of the Giurgiu county show that, in the reviwed period, in the Giurgiu county occurred 426 fires in homes (151 in urban and 275 in rural areas), which means, on average, 61 fires annually.
The fires occurred in homes, mainly due to:
a) faulty or makeshift electrical equipment (on average 32 / year);
b) electrical appliances left turned on(on average 2 / year);
c) faulty, makeshift or unattended heating systems or means (on average, 6 / year);
d) chimney / flue damaged or uncleared (on average 12 / year);
e) children playing with fire (on average 7 / year);
f) smoking (on average 19 / year);
g) open flames indoors (on average 2 / year);
h) spills / leaks of flammable products (on average 2 / year);
i) lightning and other natural phenomena (on average 1 / year);
j) arson (on average 12 / year);
k) other circumstances (on average 28 / year).
Also, annually in homes take place, on average, one explosion followed by a fire. Annually, from the total of all fires, the determining circumstance cannot pinpointed, in the event of a fire.